Cancer

Brain Cancer | Types of Brain Cancer | Treatment

Brain Cancer
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About Brain Cancer

Seizures, drowsiness, disorientation, and behavioral abnormalities are just a few of the symptoms associated with brain cancer. Not all brain tumors are malignant, and benign tumors can cause symptoms that are similar to deadly ones.

Brain Cancer is an abnormal cell growth in the brain’s tissues. Brain tumours can be benign (no cancer cells) or malignant (fast-growing cancer cells).

Some of them are primary brain tumours, meaning they begin in the brain. Others are metastatic, beginning elsewhere in the body and progressing to the brain. Brain Tumours can manifest themselves in a variety of ways.

Some of the more common ones are listed below:

  • Morning headaches are common.
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Loss of capacity to speak, hear or see
  • Stability or walking issues
  • Problems with memory or thinking
  • Weakness or drowsiness
  • Mood swings or changes in your behavior
  • Seizures

A neurologic exam, as well as procedures including an MRI, CT scan, and biopsy, are used to identify brain tumours. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy are all possibilities for treatment.

Medicines or other chemicals are used in targeted treatment to attack cancer cells while causing little damage to healthy cells. A lot of people receive a mix of therapy.

What is the Definition of Brain Cancer?

The abnormal, uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the brain is known as brain cancer.

Brain Cancer | Types of Brain Cancer | Treatment 2021
 Brain Cancer 

All of our physiological activities, from breathing to walking, are regulated by the brain’s many separate “control centres.” These control centres may be damaged when the malignancy spreads. Even slow-growing (benign) tumours might be life-threatening if they damage a critical brain location.

The brain is made up of nerve cells that transmit and receive information, as well as supporting cells that allow nerve cells to operate. Cancer can start in a variety of cell types, leading to numerous kinds of brain cancer.

WEHI conducts research on the following topics:

  • Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), which is the most prevalent and deadly kind of brain cancer. GBM is produced by glial cells that help nerve cells operate. GBM affects less than 5% of patients who live for five years or more.
  • DIPG (Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma), also known as Paediatric Diffuse Midline Glioma, is the most severe kind of brain cancer found in children.
  • Medulloblastomas, the most frequent kind of childhood brain cancer.
  • Gathering detailed clinical and translational information on all patients diagnosed with brain tumours.
  • Developing innovative models to increase glioma patients’ access to clinical trials.
  • Investigating new platforms for directing individualised therapy.

Although brain cancer seldom spreads to other regions of the body (metastasizes), cancer cells from other organs can travel to the brain.

Symptoms

The symptoms of a brain tumour vary depending on the location of the tumour in the brain.

Brain Cancer | Types of Brain Cancer | Treatment 2021
 Brain Cancer 

Symptoms that are common include:

  • Throbbing headaches (often worse in the morning and when coughing or straining)
  • It’s appropriate (seizures)
  • Being unwell on a frequent basis (vomiting)
  • Personality changes or memory issues
  • Worsening weakness, visual issues, or speech problems

If you experience persistent symptoms of a brain tumour, see your doctor. It’s improbable that it’s a tumour, but it’s better to be safe than sorry.

The indications and symptoms of a brain tumour differ widely depending on the size, location, and pace of development of the tumour.

Brain tumours can induce a variety of signs and symptoms, including:

  • A new beginning of headaches or a shift in the pattern of headaches
  • Headaches that grow more regular and severe over time
  • Nausea or vomiting that isn’t explained
  • Vision issues such as double vision, fuzzy vision, or loss of peripheral vision
  • Loss of feeling or mobility in an arm or leg over time
  • Problems with balance
  • Problems with speech
  • Perplexity in everyday situations
  • Changes in personality or conduct
  • Seizures, especially in someone who has never had a seizure before
  • Issues with hearing

Brain Cancer Causes

The following are some of the variables that might raise your chance of developing brain cancer:

  • People with certain hereditary or genetic disorders are more likely to develop brain and spinal cord tumours
  • persons who have received extremely high amounts of radiation to the head

Types

Brain tumours come in a variety of forms. Depending on where they reside in the brain, they go by different names. In addition, they are assigned a grade, which ranges from 1 to 4.

A tumor’s severity is determined by its number:

  • Non-cancerous (benign) grade 1 and 2 brain tumours develop slowly.
  • brain tumours in grades 3 and 4 are cancerous (malignant) tumours that develop more faster and are more difficult to cure.

Grade I:

These tumours are the least malignant and typically have a good prognosis. When examined under a microscope, they develop slowly and have an almost normal appearance.

Grade II:

Under a microscope, these tumours develop slowly and appear somewhat odd. Some tumours can migrate into neighbouring normal tissue and return, occasionally as a higher-grade tumour.

Grade III:

Although there isn’t often a noticeable distinction between grade II and grade III tumours, they are all malignant. A grade III tumor’s cells are actively creating aberrant cells that spread into normal brain tissue nearby. These tumours frequently return as grade IV cancers.

Grade IV:

These are the cancerous tumours. They proliferate quickly, have an odd look under the microscope, and easily grow into normal brain tissue nearby. To continue their fast development, these tumours create new blood vessels.

Brain Cancer | Types of Brain Cancer | Treatment 2021
Types Brain Cancer 

Primary (brain-based) and secondary (non-brain-based) brain tumours are two types of tumours (which spread to the brain).

More information about brain tumours may be found at Cancer Research UK:

Tumor of the Pineal

Pineal tumours arise in the pineal gland, a tiny organ deep within the brain that produces the sleep hormone melatonin (a hormone that affects your sleep-wake cycle). It’s possible that this tumour is benign or cancerous.

Glioma

Glioma is a form of brain tumour that arises from the glial cells in the brain that support the neurons. Astrocytomas, brain stem gliomas, ependymomas, oligodendrogliomas, mixed gliomas, and optic pathways gliomas are some of the several forms of gliomas.

Astrocytoma

This form of glioma (brain tumour) can be benign or cancerous. The cerebrum, optic nerve tracts, brainstem, and cerebellum can all develop benign astrocytomas.

Glioblastoma multiforme is a kind of malignant astrocytoma that typically affects the hemispheres of the brain.

Chordoma

The base of the skull is where this type of brain tumour normally develops. A chordoma is classified as malignant because it can spread to distant organs such as the lungs, liver, or bones, despite the fact that it develops slowly.

CNS Lymphoma

CNS lymphoma is a malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma that originates around the brain ventricles.

Ependymoma

This glioma-like tumour is frequently discovered near the brain’s ventricles. Some ependymomas develop slowly and are benign, whereas others, such as anaplastic ependymoma, grow quickly and are cancerous.

PNET (Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour)

This is a malignant tumour that is usually found in the cerebrum and is extremely aggressive.

Schwannoma

This benign (rarely malignant) tumour forms around the eighth cranial nerve, and is also known as acoustic neuroma.

Treatment

Surgery is used to remove brain tumours when possible. While many may be removed with little or no brain damage, some are positioned in areas where surgical removal is difficult or impossible without harming vital brain areas.

Brain Cancer | Types of Brain Cancer | Treatment 2021
 Brain Cancer 

Partial paralysis, abnormalities in sensation (feeling), weakness, and impaired reasoning can all be symptoms of brain injury induced by surgery. Nonetheless, when a tumour affects vital brain structures, it must be removed. Even if surgery is unable to cure a malignancy, it can assist reduce the size of the tumour, relieve symptoms, and identify the kind of tumour and the best treatment options.

Brain Tumours can also be treated with the following treatments:

  1. Radiation
  2. Chemotherapy
  3. Transplanting stem cells

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