Hair Fall

Define of Telogen Effluvium and what are causes of Telogen Effluvium

Telogen Effluvium
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Abstract

Telogen effluvium (TE) is a non-inflammatory condition characterized by the loss of telogen hair in a widespread manner. It is the most common cause of diffuse hair loss, although the disease’s true prevalence is unknown.

TE can be characterized physiologically and pathologically according on the underlying cause. A complete history, physical examination, and laboratory testing are all used to evaluate a patient with TE.

The patients should be questioned about their TE subtype, hair loss duration, and clinical history. The most crucial aspect of TE therapy is to seek advice on the disease’s natural course.

Background

Telogen effluvium is a non-scarring alopecia characterized by widespread hair loss, which typically begins suddenly. There is also a chronic variant with a slower start and a longer duration.

Telogen effluvium is a reaction to a metabolic or hormonal stress, as well as drugs. Unless there is a history of pattern alopecia, healing is usually spontaneous and happens within 6 months.

Epidemiology

It has been claimed that a loss of more than 25% of scalp hairs is required to diagnose widespread hair loss clinically. As a result, the majority of TE cases are likely to be subclinical, making determining the true incidence or prevalence challenging.

Female preponderance has been seen in TE, which is likely due to a greater awareness of daily hair conditions and more dynamic hormonal changes such as menstruation and pregnancy.

In principle, there would be no difference in the incidence of typical acute TE following recognized triggering events between men and women.

Children can get TE, however the prevalence has been shown to be minimal. Women over the age of 65 are more prone to have typical acute TE. Chronic TE (CTE) is a rare condition with an unknown cause that affects the entire scalp and is more common in middle-aged women.

What is Telogen Effluvium, and How does it impact your life?

TELOGEN EFFLUVIUM

About 85 percent to 90 percent of the hairs on the average person’s head are actively growing (anagen phase) at any given moment, while the remainder are resting (the telogen phase).

A hair typically spends two to four years in the anagen phase, then enters the telogen phase, rests for two to four months, and eventually falls out, to be replaced by a new, growing hair. Every day, the average individual sheds around 100 hairs.

More hairs enter the telogen phase in a person with telogen effluvium as a result of a bodily alteration or shock. Approximately 30% of hairs stop growing and enter a resting phase before falling out in this circumstance. As a result, if you have telogen effluvium, you may lose 300 hairs every day rather of 100.

Telogen effluvium can be brought on by a variety of factors, including:

  • Surgery.
  • Severe physical injury.
  • Severe psychological strain.
  • Fever, infection, or any sickness with a high fever.
  • Rapid weight loss.
  • A drastic dietary shift.
  • Hormonal changes that occur suddenly, such as those linked with delivery and menopause.
  • Anemia (lack of iron).
  • Thyroid disease (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism).
  • Some prescription medications.

Women’s Hair Loss Patterns

In 1961, telogen effluvium was first described. Telogen effluvium is the most prevalent cause of diffuse hair loss, and women with it visit dermatologists more frequently.

There appears to be a unique kind of chronic telogen effluvium that affects women in their forties and fifties. In women, it’s referred to as diffuse cyclic hair loss.

TELOGEN EFFLUVIUM

The typical patient is an otherwise healthy lady with a full, thick head of hair who suffers from this sort of hair loss. There is some bitemporal thinning and a positive hair pull test equally over the vertex and occiput on inspection.

Hair follicles in telogen effluvium act similarly to those in telogen effluvium. The hair follicles are constantly changing. Cyclic hair development takes place in a random mosaic pattern, with each follicle having its own control mechanism over the progression and triggering of the various phases.

Causes

A variety of causes can induce disruptions in the hair cycle, including:

1. Stress is a serious problem

Telogen effluvium is a condition caused by prolonged stress. Hair loss usually happens 3 months after a stressful incident, according to the experts.

TELOGEN EFFLUVIUM

2. Unhealthy eating habits

Protein, iron, B-vitamins, and zinc are all necessary nutrients for hair growth. The quality and quantity of a person’s hair can be affected by a lack of certain nutrients.

3. Weight loss that occurred unexpectedly

Hair loss can occur as a result of weight loss or continuous calorie restriction, as in anorexia nervosa.

4. Pregnancy & Delivery

More hair is in the growing phase for a longer period of time during pregnancy. Hair shedding can be caused by hormonal changes that occur three to six months after delivery. Postpartum telogen effluvium is the medical term for this condition.

5. Menopause

Telogen effluvium can be brought on by hormonal changes that occur during menopause.

6. Certain medications

Hair loss can be caused by several medicines and recreational substances.

7. Health issues that lie under the surface

Alopecia areata, autoimmune illness, thyroid disorders, and alopecia areata are examples of these.

8. Surgery

The kind of operation, length of hospital stay, medicines, and general nutritional state all have a role.

9. Toxicity of metals

Hair loss can occur when hazardous compounds in metal come into contact with the skin.

Who gets telogen effluvium & when do they get it?

After a substantial stress to the body, telogen effluvium normally occurs within 1-3 months. It usually strikes women between 1-3 months after giving birth. 1-3 months following a severe procedure, injury, or sickness are examples of other occasions.

Symptoms

  1. People with CTE have more hair loss on a daily basis.
  2. Hair loss fluctuates from day to day. Over 300 hairs may fall out on some days, whereas 40-50 hairs may fall out on others.
  3. People will complain about too much hair in their brushes, hair on their clothes, clogged shower drains, and plugged vacuums.
  4. Some people experience tingling or soreness in their scalps.
  5. Hair loss can occur anywhere on the scalp, but it’s most noticeable near the temples.
TELOGEN EFFLUVIUM

Diagnosis

Based on your complete medical history, description of your symptoms, and inspection of your scalp and hair, your dermatologist or primary care physician can diagnose the disease. He or she may gently tug on your hair to determine how many hairs are falling out and where they are in the hair cycle.

To rule out abnormalities of thyroid hormone, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid as a cause of hair loss, blood tests may be required.

A skin biopsy of your scalp may be useful if another form of hair loss is detected.

Telogen Effluvium (TE) Treatment

As the therapy for Telogen Effluvium varies depending on the reason, see your doctor. If you lose your hair as a result of a sudden shock to the system, such as surgery or delivery, it will most likely grow back over time.

While you’re waiting for your locks to mend, it’s critical to look for your hair and scalp. To eliminate oil and product build-up, eat a hair-friendly diet, condition your hair on a regular basis, and use sulfate- and paraben-free cleansers.

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