Six Types of Carcinoma and what is Carcinoma | 2021

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How do Skin Cancers begin?

The epidermis, & Top layer of skin, is where most skin malignancies begin. This layer has 3 types of cells:

  1. Squamous cells
  2. Basal cells
  3. Melanocytes

1. Squamous Cells

Squamous cells are flat cells in the epidermis’s top (outer) layer that are regularly shed as new ones develop. Squamous cell skin cancer can occur when these cells grow out of control (also called squamous cell carcinoma).

Squamous Cells

2. Basal Cells

These cells are found in the basal cell layer of the epidermis, which is located at the bottom of the epidermis. These cells proliferate often in order to replace the squamous cells that wear away at the skin’s surface.

These cells get flatter as they go up the epidermis, finally becoming squamous cells. Basal cell carcinomas or skin malignancies that start in the basal cell layer are known as basal cell carcinomas.

3. Melanocytes

Melanocytes are the cells that produce melanin, the brown pigment that gives the skin its tan or brown colour. Melanin functions as the body’s natural sunscreen, shielding the skin’s deeper layers from the sun’s detrimental effects. Melanoma skin cancer starts in these cells.

Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) is a kind of cancer that affects the cells.

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare cancerous tumour that develops in the skin.

Merkel cells, which are present in the top layer of the skin, are in close proximity to the nerve terminals that experience touch sensations.

Merkel cell carcinoma, also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin or trabecular cancer, is an extremely uncommon kind of skin cancer that develops when Merkel cells grow out of control.

The condition usually begins in sun-exposed parts of the body, such as the head and neck, as well as the arms, legs, and trunk. It is more frequent in the elderly and those with compromised immune systems.

What’s the difference between Melanoma and Carcinoma?

Melanoma Awareness Month is upon us, and ensuring that everyone understands the differences between carcinoma and melanoma is a crucial aspect of increasing awareness for these life-threatening diseases.

Because the two problems have similar characteristics, there is often considerable misunderstanding about the subject.

However, because they require different treatment strategies and have some significant medical abnormalities, knowing the difference between carcinoma and melanoma is still critical.

What’s a Carcinoma?

Carcinomas are malignancies that start in the skin and spread to the tissues that line or cover organs including the heart, kidneys, and lungs.


The following are the most common forms of carcinomas observed in children and adolescents:

Adrenocortical Carcinoma

  • Occurs in the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal gland (found at the top of each kidney) and generates hormones necessary for the body’s correct functioning.
  • Causes the adrenal gland to produce too much or too little of one or more hormones, with symptoms depending on where the tumour is found.

Thyroid Carcinoma

  • Thyroid cancer is a disease that affects the thyroid gland in the neck.
  • A healthy thyroid gland aids in the regulation of heart rate, body temperature, energy level, body weight, and blood calcium levels.

Nasopharyngeal (nose & throat) Carcinomas

  • Begin at the back of the nose, at the upper area of the throat (pharynx).

Types of Carcinoma

1. Carcinoma of the Basal Cells (CBC)

The most frequent kind of skin cancer in the world is basal cell carcinoma (BCC). It’s a sort of nonmelanoma skin cancer that’s simple to diagnose and cure.

Carcinoma of the Basal Cells

The most prevalent kind of skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma (also known as basal cell skin cancer). Basal cell carcinomas account for around 80% of all skin malignancies (also called basal cell cancers).

These malignancies begin in the basal cell layer, which is the epidermis’ bottom layer. Sun-exposed regions, such as the face, head, and neck, are the most common sites for these malignancies to form. They have a modest growth rate. A basal cell cancer that has spread to other places of the body is extremely unusual.

Basal cell cancer, on the other hand, can spread to surrounding locations and infect the bone or other tissues beneath the skin if left untreated.

Basal cell carcinoma can return (recur) in the same location on the skin if it is not entirely eradicated. People who have experienced basal cell skin malignancies are more prone to develop new ones in other parts of their bodies.

2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is a type of skin cancer that develops in parts of the body that have been exposed to the sun for an extended period of time.

Uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the epidermis of your skin causes this kind of skin cancer, which is typically less dangerous than melanoma.

If it is allowed to develop, it can become disfiguring and even fatal. Men are more likely than women to develop squamous cell carcinomas. They seldom show up before the age of 50, and they’re most common in people in their 70s.

3. Renal Cell Carcinoma

The most frequent kind of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma. The malignant cells usually form in the lining of the tubules, which are relatively tiny tubes in the kidney.

These cells may form a bulk and produce a blockage over time. Cancer can develop in one or both kidneys.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

4. Ductal Carcinoma

The most frequent kind of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma in situ. The cancerous cells in the milk duct lining haven’t migrated through the duct walls into the surrounding breast tissue.

5. Invasive ductal Carcinoma

When malignant cells proliferate in the duct lining, they burst through the duct wall and infect local breast tissue, resulting in invasive ductal carcinoma. The cancer may then spread to other places of the body, known as metastasis.

6. Leukemia

Leukemias are tumours of the bone marrow (sometimes known as “liquid cancers” or “blood cancers”) (the site of blood cell production). In Greek, the word leukaemia means “white blood.” Overproduction of immature white blood cells is frequently linked to the condition.

Because these immature white blood cells do not function as efficiently as they should, the patient is frequently infected.


Leukemia can also impact red blood cells, resulting in poor blood clotting and exhaustion from anaemia.

The following are some examples of leukemia:

  • Leukemia (myelogenous or granulocytic) (malignancy of the myeloid and granulocytic white blood cell series)
  • Leukemia of the lymphatic system, lymphocytic leukaemia, or lymphoblastic leukaemia (malignancy of the lymphoid and lymphocytic blood cell series)
  • Erythremia or polycythemia vera (malignancy of various blood cell products, but with red cells predominating)

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