Hair loss in children under the age of 12 is most commonly caused by a benign or self-limiting disorder. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the assessment of prevalent causes of paediatric alopecia, as well as the consequences for general practise.
The purpose of this article is to assist readers in methodically assessing a kid who presents with alopecia, managing the most frequent disorders of paediatric alopecia, and identifying individuals who require dermatologist referral.
The majority of paediatric alopecia causes are non-scarring. Tinea capitis, alopecia areata, traction alopecia or trichotillomania-related damage, and telogen effluvium are among them.
Scarring alopecia can also strike children, necessitating a scalp biopsy and additional examination by a dermatologist. Clear instances of tinea capitis should be seen by a general practitioner.
When the diagnosis is unclear, therapy is failing, or scarring alopecia is present, a dermatologist should be consulted.
What is Alopecia Areata and who are the people who are affected by it?
Alopecia areata is a disorder that causes hair loss. (Alopecia areata is a kind of alopecia, which is a medical word for hair loss.)
Alopecia is a term that refers to hair loss or baldness. There are a few various ways it may affect people, but the most prevalent is alopecia areata, which causes little patches of hair loss on the scalp that look like circles.
Other forms include alopecia totalis, in which all of the hair on the head is gone, and alopecia universalis, in which all of the hair on the body (including the eyebrows, groyne region, and under the arms) is lost. These are, however, uncommon.
Alopecia areata is thought to afflict roughly 15 out of every 10,000 persons in the United Kingdom. Most family doctors will have seen at least one case, and you’re likely to know someone who has.
Alopecia areata can strike at any age, although it strikes half of the time in childhood and 80 percent of the time before the age of 40. Both men and women are impacted equally. When it occurs at an older age, the ailment is usually milder.
The bald patch or patches may be seen initially by a family, acquaintance, or hairdresser. Apart from the area, the scalp is normally healthy and scar-free. On the bald spots, there is occasionally some faint redness, mild scaling, mild burning, or a small itching feeling, but the person is normally unaffected.
1. Androgenic Alopecia
It is a prevalent cause of hair loss in both men and women. Male pattern baldness is defined as hair loss or thinning on the top of the head, with the hairline receding from the temples. A U-shaped hair pattern across the back and sides of the head usually persists, or hair may continue to fall out, eventually leading to full baldness.
Hair Loss in Men
Hair loss in males can start any time after puberty and proceed over years or decades. It begins above the temples and wraps around the perimeter and top of the head, leaving a ring of hair at the bottom of the scalp. Male pattern baldness affects many guys.
Hair Loss in Women
Hair thins gradually all over the scalp in women, although the hairline normally does not recede. This form of hair loss affects many women as a normal part of ageing; however, it can start at any age after puberty. Female pattern hair loss can cause hair to thin rapidly, although baldness is uncommon.
2. Alopecia Areata (AA)
When the body’s immune system attacks the hair follicles, disrupting natural hair development and creation, this disorder occurs. Although the exact origin is unknown, it appears to be an abnormality in which the immune system attacks certain biological parts.
Immune cells are seen within the hair follicles in biopsies of the afflicted skin, which are not ordinarily present. Alopecia areata is frequently associated with autoimmune diseases such as ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, vitiligo, thyroid illness, and allergy disorders.
In certain circumstances, alopecia areata affects many family members, indicating that inheritance and genes are involved.
3. Alopecia Universalis (AU)
Alopecia universalis is a kind of alopecia totalis that is more advanced than alopecia totalis. This kind causes hair loss all over the body, including the scalp, face (including eyebrows and eyelashes), and the rest of the body (including pubic hair).
This word refers to whole body hair loss, which means that the epidermis is hair-free. It is the most severe form of alopecia areata, and as such, it is extremely rare, occurring in just around one person in 100,000.
4. Patchy Alopecia Areata that Persists
Patchy scalp hair loss that lasts for a long time without progressing to more severe forms of alopecia areata, such as totalis or universalis, is known as persistent patchy alopecia areata.
5. Alopecia Traction (AT)
Hairstyles that pull the hair back so firmly that the roots are pulled away from the scalp create this. Because new hair follicles cannot form when such extreme strain is applied, permanent hair loss might occur3.
As a result, it’s best to reduce the amount of stress on your scalp by choosing a haircut that doesn’t pull at the roots.
6. Scarring Alopecia (cicatricial alopecia)
Scarring alopecias is caused by inflammation, which leads to the destruction of the hair follicle, resulting in permanent hair loss. If the problem is addressed early in the sickness process, hair regeneration is sometimes
Achievable. Inflammatory illnesses such as discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, dissecting cellulitis, tufted folliculitis, folliculitis decalvans, alopecia mucinosa, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, and acne keloidalis cause hair follicle loss. For these various illnesses, there are a variety of therapies available, many of which are tailored to the situation at hand.
7. Effluvium Anagen
Anagen effluvium is a kind of hair loss induced by cancer treatment medicines that causes patchy hair loss and eventually complete hair loss (it usually grows back after treatment ceases).
8. Alopecia Frontal Fibrosing
Hair loss and scars on the scalp around the forehead define this illness. Around half of all persons with frontal fibrosing alopecia lose their eyebrows and, in some circumstances, their eyelashes.
9. Capitis Tinea
Tinea capitis, often known as scalp ringworm, is a fungus that attacks the scalp. The virus can sometimes find its way into your hair follicles and hair shafts, causing patches of hair loss over your scalp.
Tinea capitis causes some temporary hair loss. Inflammation caused by tinea capitis, on the other hand, might lead to irreversible hair loss.
Tinea capitis can migrate from your scalp to other facial hairs, such as your brows and eyelashes, in some circumstances.
Tinea capitis is treated with antifungal drugs such griseofulvin, itraconazole, and fluconazole since it is a fungal infection.
Antifungal shampoos are sometimes used in the therapy. This infection usually requires four to eight weeks of treatment.
10. Trichotillomania (hair pulling)
Trichotillomania is a mental disorder in which you can’t stop pulling out your hair, causing hair loss. The scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes are the most typical sites where people pluck hair out.
Hypotrichosis is a rare hereditary disorder that causes the scalp and body to develop very little hair. The hair of babies born with this disorder may develop normally at first, but it falls out after a few months and is replaced by scant hair.
Hypotrichosis causes baldness in a large number of persons by the age of 25. This disorder has limited treatment options, however certain drugs can help thicken or regenerate hair.