What Causes Lymphoma | Two common Types of Lymphoma | Treatment

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Hodgkin lymphoma is a kind of lymphoma that affects the lymphatic system. The lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and other organs all contain lymph tissue.

Lymphomas are a diverse collection of cancers that emerge from the clonal proliferation of lymphocyte subsets such as B cells, T cells, and Natural Killer (NK) cells at various stages of maturity.

Lymphoma is a group of cancers that develop from the clonal expansion of lymphocytes. It accounts for around 5% of all cancers. The overall survival rate is predicted to be around 72%.

What’s Lymphoma?

Lymphoma is a malignancy that affects the immune system and develops in the lymphatic system.


Lymphocytes, or infection-fighting cells, can be found in the lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow, among other places. When these cells proliferate out of control and undergo genetic alterations, cancer develops.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma are the two most frequent kinds of lymphoma.

Our cancer experts at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA) use a variety of diagnostic tests to diagnose the kind and stage of cancer before designing a unique treatment plan for each patient.

Who is impacted by this?

Each year, around 13,000 persons in the United Kingdom are diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may strike anybody at any age, although it becomes more likely as you get older, with little over a third of cases identified in persons over 75.

Men are impacted slightly more than women.


There are several forms of lymphoma, and most occurrences of lymphoma have no known cause. If your immune system is inhibited, you may be more susceptible to certain forms of lymphoma.

Transplantation of organs or bone marrow, immunosuppressive therapy, and the existence of autoimmune illnesses, for example, can all raise the risk of lymphoma.

Being exposed to certain illnesses might also raise your chances of acquiring lymphoma. Helicobacter pylori bacteria, hepatitis C virus, HIV virus, or human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus are all examples.

Breast implants, particularly those with a rough surface, have been associated to a very rare type of lymphoma in rare situations.

People who selected implants for aesthetic reasons as well as those who got implants after reconstructive surgery after breast cancer have developed lymphoma.

What are the different Types of Lymphoma?

Lymphoma is divided into two categories: Hodgkin lymphoma, which is named after the doctor who first identified the illness, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which encompasses approximately 60 other forms of lymphoma.

1. Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma is a lymphatic system cancer. The lymphatic system is an element of the immune system of the body. Lymphoma arises from lymphocytes, which are white blood cells.

Hodgkin lymphoma may start in practically any bodily component. However, it typically begins in the lymph nodes.

The lymph nodes in the neck are the most prevalent location. Lymph nodes in many parts of the body may be impacted.

We now have a better understanding of how lymphoma develops.

Each year, around 2,100 persons in the United Kingdom are diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma.

Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer that can strike anyone at any age. It is one of the most frequent malignancies that affects teenagers and young adults.

2. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are lymphoid tissue cancers that primarily affect lymph nodes.


Chromosome translocations, infections, environmental factors, immunodeficiency states, and chronic inflammation can all cause these malignancies.

The three forms of NHL that affect children the most are:

1. Lymphoblastic

T-cell origin, frequently difficult to differentiate from leukemia. About a third of all NHLs in children are caused by this.

2. Burkitt’s and non-lymphoma Burkitt’s (small noncleaved cell lymphoma)

cALLa and B-cell origin (common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen). NHLs account for 40-50 percent of all NHLs in children.

3. Lymphoma of the large cell type

A diverse collection of B-cell and T-cell cells, some of which resemble both T-cell and B-cell cells. It accounts for 20–25 percent of all NHLs in children.

How are the effects of lymphoma on the body?

The lymphatic system is made up of several components. These include the following:

  • The Spleen (in the belly).
  • Adenoids and tonsils (in the neck).
  • Thymus gland (in the chest behind the breastbone).
  • Neck, underarms, stomach.
  • These organs and nodes are linked by lymph veins.

Lymphoma can develop anywhere in the lymphatic system. When lymphocytes, which are cells in the lymphatic system, become aberrant, they frequently develop fast and then divide in half to produce new cells.

Lymphoma cells in the lymphatic system can migrate all over the body over time. These cells make it harder for the immune system to function effectively by preventing healthy cells surrounding them from performing appropriately. These cells use nutrients and energy as well, starving healthy cells.


Lymphoma symptoms differ from one individual to the next. They may also change depending on your cancer’s type and stage.


The following are examples of possible symptoms:

  • Neck, armpit, or groin lymph node swelling.
  • Excessive tiredness.
  • Chest discomfort, coughing, or difficulty breathing.
  • Itching.
  • Chills and fever.
  • Night sweats that are soaking wet.
  • Weight loss that is extreme and inexplicable.


A full and precise diagnosis is essential for successful lymphoma treatment. Each of our patients has a comprehensive examination so that we can devise a treatment plan that is unique to them.

Lymphoma is diagnosed using the following criteria:

Medical History & Physical Exam

We conduct a comprehensive examination and obtain a complete medical history from you and your family.

Urine & Blood Work

Your complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry, and other parameters may be tested using blood and urine samples.

Biopsy of Lymph Nodes

We remove all or part of a lymph node using a needle or an incision, then analyses the sample under a microscope.


The kind and stage of your lymphoma, as well as your general health and preferences, will determine which lymphoma therapies are best for you. Treatment aims to eliminate as many cancer cells as possible and put the disease into remission.

Treatments for lymphoma include:


1. Active Monitoring

Some types of lymphoma develop very slowly. When your lymphoma develops signs and symptoms that interfere with your regular activities, you and your doctor may decide to wait to treat it. You may be subjected to frequent testing to check your status till then.

2. Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a type of treatment that employs medications to kill fast-growing cells, such as cancer cells. The medications are normally given through a vein, but depending on the drugs you get, they can also be taken as pills.

3. Radiation Treatment

To destroy cancer cells, radiation treatment employs high-powered beams of energy such as X-rays and protons.

4. A Bone Marrow Transplant

A bone marrow transplant, also known as a stem cell transplant, entails suppressing your bone marrow with heavy doses of chemotherapy and radiation.

Then, either from your own body or from a donor, healthy bone marrow stem cells are pumped into your bloodstream, where they travel to your bones and repair your bone marrow.

Is Lymphoma Prevented?

There is no practical technique to avoid lymphoma because the etiology is unknown. If you suspect you might have lymphoma, being aware of the risk factors and symptoms, as well as speaking with your doctor, are essential for early diagnosis and treatment.

If you have a family history of lymphoma, it’s extremely essential to be on the lookout for symptoms and to tell your doctor about your medical history.

Speak with your doctor about lymphoma detection and treatment if you believe you have it or are at risk for it. You may be sent to a hematologist, a specialist who specializes in blood problems, based on your physical condition, genetics, and medical history.

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